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317 plant species were identified. Most are well adapted to the lack of soil aeration, characteristic of wetlands, however there are also some drier areas with a flora that reflects this condition.

Although the inventoried species are not very remarkable, their high diversity is relevant considering the small size of the reserve and the fact that a large part of the area is devoted to agricultural activity. It should be noted the existence of a population of Narcissus fernandesii, an Iberian endemism, considered threatened, currently being the largest nucleus within a Protected Area and the second largest in the entire national territory. Other species worth highlighting, included in the Red Book of Plants of Portugal, are the White Borrazeira (Salix salvifolia ssp. australis), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa ssp. institioides), gilbardeira (Ruscus aculeatus) and yellowbells (Narcissus bulbocodium🇧🇷 It is also worth mentioning the occurrence of two species of orchids of the genus Serapias.


The plant formations are dominated by species associated with humid environments, with the variation in the floristic cast being notorious as we walk from permanently wet land to land that is permanently dry.


In areas that are permanently flooded, or that are only dry for a short period of time during the summer, species that are essentially dependent on soggy and sunny soils, such as the reed (Phragmites australis), the board (typha dominguensis), the sword (Sparganium erectum ssp. negletum), the yellow lily (iris pseudacorus).  It is worth mentioning the bunho (Scirpus lacustris ssp. lacustris) which,  due to the abundance and importance of its use in artisanal terms in the past, gave rise to the name Bunhal, which is still used today to designate the most flooded area of the nature reserve.

Certain species such as the mal-casada (Polygonum amphibium) that grow from the bottom and have floating leaves give an enormous beauty to the surface of the waters. It is to be regretted the disappearance of the dolphin (nynphae alba) and a program for its reintroduction is being developed.


In the temporarily flooded areas, in addition to floating aquatic plants, perennial and annual species dominate, such as the malcasada (Polygonum amphibium), the labaça (Rumex conglomeratus), several species of rainunculi  (Ranunculus bandotii, R. bulbosus and R. trilobus), the trowel (Scrophularia scorodonia), the gramichão (paspalum paspalodes🇧🇷Polypogon monspeliensis, Eleocharis palustris, Carex ssp., broadleaf board (typha latifolia),  reed (Juncus ssp.🇧🇷

It is also worth mentioning the occasional existence of species typical of brackish environments, such as the tamarisk (African Tamarix) and the triangular reed (Scirpus maritimus🇧🇷

As far as the arboreal layer is concerned, willow groves dominate, in particular white willow (salix alba) to which brittle willow (salix fragilis) and red willow (salix rubens), which form small islands of vegetation, dense groves or accompany the combro of the ditches. In some places in the flooded area, it is possible to find black rubber tree (Salix atrocinerea) and borazeira-white (Salix salvifolia ssp. australis🇧🇷

In areas that are not subject to such prolonged flooding, narrow-leaved ash dominates (Fraxinus angustifolia), accompanied by black poplar (populus nigra), by the hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) and, in the lianoid extract, the silva (Rubus sp.), the wild rose (dog rose), norça-canina (tamus communis), wild vines (vitis vinifera), sarsaparilla bastard (rough smilax), honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum spp. Hispanic), among others, which form a riparian corridor, well preserved and which has been increasing. Associated with this, it should be mentioned the existence of a small area of forest with typically Mediterranean species such as the cork oak (Quercus suber), Portuguese oak (Quercus faginea), some specimens of holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and wild olive (Olea europaea var. sylvestris🇧🇷 It is a testament to the ancient Mediterranean forest that once occupied the region and which today, in almost all of its extension, has been replaced by irrigated arable crops.

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The fauna of Paul do Boquilobo is very diverse, as is characteristic of wetlands, which are among the most productive ecosystems on the entire planet. There are inventoried 16 species of fish, 13 species of amphibians, 11 species of reptiles, 27 species of mammals and 221 species of birds have been observed.

The nature reserve serves as a nursery for several species of fish, which is why it is extremely important for the ichthyological fauna. It is worth mentioning the presence of two endangered Lusitanian endemisms, namely the Ruivaco (Achondrostoma oligolepis) and Portuguese bogue (Iberochondostroma  lusitanicum🇧🇷 Also noteworthy is the presence of the eel (anguilla anguilla) for its high gastronomic value associated with catering in the village of Boquilobo. It is important to mention the fact that the native fish fauna is threatened by the introduction of several exotic species, such as carp (Cyprinus carpio) which was introduced in the Middle Ages and others of more recent introduction such as sapwood (sapwood sapwoods) or catfish (Silurus glanis🇧🇷


As for amphibians, the presence of 4 Iberian endemisms stands out, namely, the orange-bellied newt (snapper boscai), the Iberian midwife toad (Alytes cisternassii) the pointed-snouted frog (discoglossus galganoi) and the green frog (frog perezi🇧🇷 Amphibian populations declined sharply with the introduction of the Louisiana red crayfish (Procambarus clarkii🇧🇷


Among reptiles, it is important to consider the existence of five different species of snakes: the rat snake (malpolon monspessulanos), the ladder snake (elaphe scalaris), the horseshoe snake (Coluber hippocrepis), viperine water snake (natrix natrix) and the water snake (natrix maura🇧🇷 As for the saurians, characteristic of drier areas, the common gecko (Mauritanian Tarentola), the Iberian gecko (hispanic podarcis) and roundnose lizard (Psammodromus algirus🇧🇷 Very common, but difficult to observe is the tridactyl-legged snake (Chalcides striatus🇧🇷 It is worth highlighting the occurrence of two species of tortoise existing in Portugal, namely the Mediterranean tortoise (Mauyremys leprosa) and in particular the striated tortoise (Emys orbicularis), as it is a species with endangered status in the national territory.


With regard to mammals, the presence of the otter is highlighted (fight fight) and the toirão (mustela putoris) species associated with aquatic environments. the weasel (mustela nivalis), the genet (genetta genetta), the tail-puller (herpestes ichneumon), the Fox (vulpes vulpes) and the badger (meles meles) complete the range of carnivores. The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is quite common and the fallow deer (lady lady) is also present although in reduced numbers. It is relevant, among other bat species, the occurrence of the giant tree bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus🇧🇷



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Despite the great diversity of fauna existing in the reserve, the group of vertebrates that stands out is undoubtedly the class of birds. It was mainly its interest as a place of wintering, nesting and passage of a very high number of species, which led to the creation of the Natural Reserve of Paul do Boquilobo.


Among the sedentary species, some are quite common and relatively easy to observe, such as: Little Grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis), carcasser (Bubulcus ibis), heron (ardea cinerea), mallard (anas platyrhynchus), buzzard-winged eagle (buteo buteo), common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), Turkish turtledove (Steptopelia decaocto), barn owl (tyto alba), kingfishers (alcedo atthis), spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopus major), woodpecker (Dendrocopus minor), lark (Galerida cristata), wren (troglodytes troglodytes), common redtail (Phoenicurus ochruros), robin (erithacus rubecula), blackbird (turdus merula), warbler (Cetti Cetti),  Valladolid Warbler (Sylvia melanochephala), long-tailed tit (Aegithalus caudatus), blue tit (parus caeruleus), bluecreeper (Sitta europaea), royal shrike (Lanius meridionalis).


With regard to wintering species, their herds are quite variable depending on the winter rigor in northern Europe where they originate. The marsh stands out for its huge variety of anatidae: every winter there are some examples of wild geese (Anser anser), jokers (anas penelope) and frizzy (anas strepera🇧🇷 The  little teals (Anas crecca), the arrabia (anas acuta) and  shoveler (Anas clypeata) are very common. With regard to diving ducks, which are in sharp decline in European terms, the reserve is normally home to more than half of the national population of ducks (aythya fierce) wintering, often accounting for more than a thousand individuals in addition to a few specimens of squirrels (aythya soot) and even the perra (aythya nyroca🇧🇷 Certain species of birds of prey also occur, mainly in winter, such as: Sapphire eagle (circus aeruginosus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), the gray kestrel (Elanus caeruleus), some examples of merlin (falcon columbarius) and the barn owl (Asio flammeus🇧🇷 The coot flocks (fulica atra) are very numerous, snipes are common (gallinago gallinago), common golden plovers (apricaria pluvialis) and plentiful lapwings (vanellus vanellus), easily observing flocks of more than a thousand specimens in the soggy stubble, together with several species of gulls, in particular the gull (Larus ridibundus) or the dark-winged gull (Larus fuscus🇧🇷 In the tree curtains, along with many other species of passerines, the presence of the mountain chaffinch (Montifringilla Fringilla) exclusively wintering species. They are common, the red thrush (turdus philomelos) and the red thrush (turdus iliacus🇧🇷

With the increase in temperature and length of day, birds from the south begin to arrive, while wintering birds return to the north. The colony of herons is worth mentioning: in addition to the two sedentary species already mentioned, the red seabream nests here (nycticorax nycticorax), the little egret (egretta garzetta) and red heron (purple sting) and probably   or another couple of the rare ratcatchers (ardeola ralloids🇧🇷 But the colony is also home to other species such as the spoonbill (platalea leucorodia), the black ibis (Plegadis falcinellus), the white stork (ciconia ciconia), the common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) and even one or two pairs of black kite (milvus migrans) that are common in the reserve. This remarkable diversity of nesting species gives added importance to the nature reserve, as it is the colony that, in national terms, has the greatest number of species. The marsh tern (Chlidonias hybridus), which in the recent past has nested in high numbers, is still observed in passing. Also here the Lesser Plover build their nests (Charadrius dubius) or the mosquito (Himantopus himantopus🇧🇷 In drier soils, often perched on roads at dusk, you can find the Red-necked Nightjar (Caprimulgus ruficollis🇧🇷 The cuckoo (cuculus canourus) is often heard as well as papa figs (oriolus oriolus), however, are difficult to observe. The hoopoe (upupa epops) and the bee-eater (merops apiaster) are also common. In the cork oak forest you can find wood pigeons (Columba palumbus🇧🇷 Several species of swallows, especially the martin swallows (hirundo daurica) flutter actively looking for winged insects. The yellow haw (motacilla flava), the common warbler (Luscinia megarhynchus), the great reed waringale (Acrochephalus arundinaceus) frequent the brambles and the most humid areas. Many other species of passerines are easily observed, either in the fields or in the treetops: laverca (alauda arvensis), karthus (saxicola torquata), barrette warbler (sylvia atricapilla), great tit (parus major), woodpecker shrike (senator lanius), French Sparrow (petronia petronia), finch (fringilla coelebs), milheirinha (serinus serinus), greenback (carduelis chloris), goldfinch (carduelis carduelis) and robin (Cannabis carduelis🇧🇷


This area is also of enormous importance for the species of birds that pass through Portugal on their migratory journeys, functioning as a resting place and feeding between the migratory stages. This is the case of some species of waders, birds that feed in wetlands, such as the black-throated milherango (slimy slime), the fighter (Philomachus pugnax) and the sandpiper (Numenius phaeopus🇧🇷 Certain species of passerines are easily observed during this period of passage: flycatchers (Hypoleuca Ficedula), gray wheatear (oenanthe oenanthe) and northern stonechat (saxicola rubetra🇧🇷


However, it should be noted that the interest of the reserve and the ecosystem associated with it does not end with vertebrates, many other species of animals use this space that functions as an island of biodiversity,  highlighting a high variety of arthropod species, some of which are rare in the national or European context.

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